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TERRITORY AND PERSPECTIVE



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Part III TERRITORY AND PERSPECTIVE * * * Olivier Auber * * October 2007 * CONTENTS Part I - Three Prospects Part II - Three regimes of legitimacy Part III - OUTLOOK AND TERRITORY * Transfer Announced III-1. The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy Time * Legitimacy by impartiality: a revival? * Legitimacy by impartiality, not without risk * Legitimacy by impartiality: Identity Provider * Legitimacy substantial recovery of assets or common good? * Procedural legitimacy: the deadlock of democracy of opinion III-2. The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy digital * Value of hostages and dependence * New skills to judge * The State as an industry code * The impossible monopoly * Drop taken on Digital Identity Copyright © 2007 Olivier Auber Copyleft Edit SUMMARY Working ... The parameter "page" is missing. TERRITORY AND OUTLOOK Part III - Outlook and territory Transfer Announced After the Renaissance, the regime legitimacy and space industries of the area, most likely to manage soil, things and people, have long maintained their rule. The turning to other perspectives took place during the Industrial Revolution that marked the transition from a production economy based mainly on the exploitation of outer space (agriculture) to another, based more on the code (manufactured products, brands, patents) and time (press first, then telephone, radio and television). Of course, this typology is not exclusive; all industries time, and code of space in certain measures are all three at once. Today, new industries temps and code born with the advent of the Internet and more generally with NBIC technologies are not truly industrial sense. In each category, there are also many multinational companies, small companies or craftsmen, alone or networked together. All are now placed under the pressure of social legitimacy and digital time. How territorial powers, old industries space entries to turn in the network, are under pressure? To what extent they comply with their standards. How kind of legitimacy inherent mutate they or will they have to do? Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy Time Part III - Outlook and territory The territory and the regime legitimacy Time Legitimacy by impartiality: a revival? In France, probably in terms of renewal of the legitimacy of impartiality in the register of the time perspective, that institutional initiatives are the most visible and volunteers. The government sites have undertaken to provide universal access to public services and make more readable the modalities to implement. The "e-administration" and inspired the design of ergonomics and cognitive commercial sites with top performers to streamline and improve services to users. The field of cartography, emblematic figure of power, is certainly one of those who depart least this logic. Attendance at government sites (inclus. GeoPortal): 17.7 million unique visitors in April 2007. Source: State Govt @ No. 11 In the field of institutional mapping, as in others, the watchwords of public policy are: sharing, productivity, cost reduction, or even profitability. They are expected to contribute to debt of the State. Indeed, productivity gains wipe out whole sections of the terminal based on the old space. Destruction that it is hoped counterbalanced by new creations as "virtuous circle of online services" proposed by Pierre de La Coste. The virtuous circle of online services Source: The report Hyper Republic Pierre de La Coste 2003 Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit Part III - Outlook and territory The territory and the regime legitimacy Time Legitimacy by impartiality: not without risk Despite efforts, the e-government and e-services derogate from the guns of the temporal legitimacy on many points. As far as traditional''the e-government, the centralization of information processing increasingly reduced the number of those who can bend the rules, at the same time it increases the speed with which these rules may change depending upon the legislative power shifts. This can be seen as a sign of flexibility and adaptability consistent with the regime legitimacy of time, provided that the population recognizes the vanishing point that power him. The risk here is to see happen a kind of ossification of political norms and existing social, which does not give the possibility to society to review and thus create the passage of new relationships, new meaning and new solidarities . Regarding the initiatives of e-services community, even the State or its agencies, far beyond the traditional scope of public services. They invest in areas such as public debate and the citoyennenté or in the exploitation of the territory in terms of tourism, urban planning and development, culture, industry and services. For reasons of validation of public information, these e-services are struggling to implement fully all possibilities of the Internet. In particular, they do not let people build or co-operate in the social or geographic maps as do many private sites or community. The risk is that these e-services exercise competition on similar services offered by these private actors sometimes felt as more legitimate users. Some of these private actors, located in the territory, are hampered in their economic development. In summary, in light of the time perspective, the danger that lurks all e-services and territorial''e-government is that they are empty phrase or institutional communication election, short as they appraissent pure products of the economy of attention. Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit Part III - Outlook and territory The territory and the regime legitimacy Time Legitimacy by impartiality: provider of identity as other The territorial government sites and look increasingly to commercial sites, not only in terms of aesthetics but also on their relationship to the user. It all starts generally a username and password, before a personalized interaction, which strangely, even in the case of a public service, may also be of a merchant. This raises the territorial government sites and the same question as that posed to all actors of the Web, especially those that manage personal data is that of "digital identity". The identity they issue and store in their databases is a prerequisite for the establishment of all forms of interaction and social mapping. All the major players in the Internet have become in one way or another, the so-called "identity providers". In the temporal scheme of legitimacy increasingly evident in the eyes of Internet users, the State and become players in their own identity providers like the others. Facing the proliferation of identifiers (one per site where each user is registered), the actors of the Web's most advanced gradually take conscience must be other ways of identity management, more open, secure, and especially focused and controlled by the user. Many developments exist on this subject as the most advanced is probably OpenID, an open source system recently adopted by Yahoo, Wikipedia, Orange, Microsoft, etc.. The identity linked with the "Code", its centralization that might appear legitimate regimes legitimacy spatial and temporal, is less that of the nascent digital perspective. And it is a system that offers acentric OpenID. If they want to survive, centers of "social networks" type Facebook (60 million users in early 2008), while capitalizing on these data, identity realize they will be forced to become interoperable with other centers and especially to give out to users on their own data. It is called "mobile social network" which OpenID is one of the elements. Like all providers of identity, states and players suffer the same pressure. Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit Part III - Outlook and territory The territory and the regime legitimacy Time Legitimacy substantial recovery of assets or common good? The state and local authorities are trying to reform their legitimacy substantial showing they are the true guardians of the public interest and public property, tangible and intangible. As such, the State began to return such people the information they are the source. In addition to the field of cartography (Geoportal), it is also the case with audio-visual (INA), Statistics (INSEE), law (Regulations), and public finance (MINEFI sites), etc. . This is not without difficulties because of the confidentiality of certain data, including personal or danger assumed that they are exploited or abused by players. This echoes competition issues centers and the digital identity. There are also technical problems, format data. But beyond a dilemma arises that appears to be far from being settled. On the one hand, the State, concerned about the value of its assets to contribute to its debt, wants to trade in intangible property. That is what the report calls Lévy-Jouyet which led to the establishment in the spring of 2007 the Agency Intangible Heritage of the State (FIPA). On the other hand, it seems certain that when intangible enter the community in the general market, they immediately lose their joint property. The state and its continued players, could rightly be regarded as commercial enterprises like any other. They obviously lose a substantial legitimacy. This dilemma are unlikely to find resolution in the context of the legitimacy that time, in terms of information, tends to push the competition centers until climax. It would be quite different in a digital legitimacy at the center to "link" and periphery, the capital. Geo: zoom up on the Place de la Bastille - presence of the signature embedded "Geoportal" GoogleMaps: zoom up on the Place de la Bastille (no signature embedded) Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit Part III - Outlook and territory The territory and the regime legitimacy Time Procedural legitimacy: the deadlock of democracy of opinion Certainly today is the renewal of the procedural legitimacy of territorial powers under the scheme which time the worst problems. The state and local authorities can not completely surrender to the pressure of the true interactivity called by the time perspective. We saw that to prevent them, the Republic had imposed since its inception Electoral Code establishing a kind of "time codal" slow and ritualized. However, it sells in its own way, leaving settle a democracy of opinion in terms of which political parties and media players seem to fit into the general economy of attention, like everyone what business communication. Map of the 2007 presidential results. Source: LCI & Profession Politique. According to an increasingly industrialized democracy of opinion simply transforms the raw material "attention" in votes, then tax, and finally in power, through a complex machinery polls and the communication policy to decipher and manipulate social codes. For the many filters that it precludes interactivity, machinery in question does not stick to guns legitimacy of the time perspective that is increasingly in the unconscious since the advent of the Internet. The individual subjectivities shaped by the time perspective to recognize less and less in social maps that show their territorial powers. Accordingly, they can no longer play their role in support of interaction, act as a sham. One can interpret what he called "the crisis of representation" as a lack of procedural legitimacy in the registry the time perspective. And this particular failure of the process of accession to power casts doubt on all other forms of legitimacy. He am a general mistrust towards all territorial powers, both legislative as executive directors. Comparison territorial identity lived and cutting federal USA. Source: the CommonCensus? Map Project Therefore the territorial authorities are tempted to invent or other cards to appeal to other codes they consider override all others, such as the "national identity" in an attempt to regain legitimacy. A newspaper "Liberation" of 2 October 2007. Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy digital Part III - Outlook and territory The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy digital "Man, for millennia, has remained what it was for Aristotle: live, and more capable of political existence, modern man is an animal in which the political life of being alive is in question. [...] The problem with political, ethical, social and philosophical that arises in us today is not to try to free the individual from the state and its institutions, but to liberate us, we on the state and the type of individualization related. We need to promote new forms of subjectivity "Michel Foucault. Value hostage and dependence A code is in principle the key to a link (any type), when it threatens to disappear, the link may break. It is on this simple mechanism based industries that code, often global. They derive their profits, not just the use value of their products and services, but their value hostages, namely dependence they produce in those customers. The greater the dependency, the more the monopoly of the code strengthened, and the exchange value of the industry that the product on the market grows, sometimes to a breaking point ... The first form of addiction is food, we must eat to live. In that agriculture was and remains an industry code. The industrial revolution has generated a lot of other addictions, increasingly sophisticated, but the principle remains the same. When the code (the key to the product or service) is easily reproducible, dependence-producing industry is low. In contrast, the code is more rare or difficult to replicate locally, for one reason natural or artificial, the greater dependency. Depending on the nature of codes, dependence may be of a physiological or psychological before becoming social. The extreme case is that of codes leading to addictive behaviors that subjects can subtract the influence of dominant social codes, and thus subject to a ban of its industry. Codes can have a value of hostages for a very high value to zero, while remaining tolerated. This is the case of those financial derivatives such as "subprime", whose exchange value has fallen sharply in bringing in their fall they were holding hostage. PerspectivesEtTerritoire legitimacy by impartiality: a revival? >> Edit Part III - Outlook and territory The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy digital New skills to judge The new industry code born of the Internet also respond to this system of dependency. However, unlike their elders who produced material objects proliferating so invisible, the new industries that generate numeric codes intangible, have a need to view and give their own process. No doubt it is this visibility that today reveals the existence of a form of perspective related to the code. MobileTag Mobile Tag: Catch the Matrix Source: Mobile Tag As the spatial perspective, the prospect Digital made its way primarily in the unconscious. It should slowly increase the level of competencies to enable everyone to assess the quality of relationships and dependencies that puts in place, or that she proposes. Thus, the new regime legitimacy seeping everywhere, even in old industries born before computers and telecommunications, but who are facing all levels of their activities. Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit Part III - Outlook and territory The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy digital The State as an industry code To consider the attitudes of the State vis-à-vis the code and its changes with respect to digital perspective, it is convenient to represent itself as an industry code. Its value would be hostage to its monopoly on the territory and people. The law would be both the code and its instrument, to decide and act to renew the conditions for its own existence. Depending on the type of code outside itself to which the State is facing, the potential danger it poses to social order or the nation, or to the interest that the industry code in question is for the territory, the legislature opts for a wide variety of treatments: penalty for some institution of public monopolies or for others moratorium or precautionary principle, creation of industrial and national research, taxation, service delegation public sale of licenses, privatization, etc.. All these postures of the law, designed to meet codes are often associated with objects or equipment loans spaces of a certain scarcity (including space for radio frequencies), now seem to have change of the wealth generated codes via the Internet in its current version, and more in its future. Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit Part III - Outlook and territory The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy digital The impossible monopoly Not only the scarcity of codes has to disappear, but the regime legitimacy digital germ in the network that these codes would be controlled by users themselves, including and especially the personal digital identity. The first to be under that pressure, the greatest actors of the Internet, have already embarked on this path by adopting the protocol of free identity management OpenID. This protocol allows everyone to manage his identity, wherever he wishes, ie to a trusted third party or on its own terminal, and as he wishes, it means controlling the fragments of him it shows itself or not, such as body or person. Against all odds, multinationals have renounced be custodians exclusive identities. Soon under pressure from the regime legitimacy digital, they also relinquish control of social networks and no industry code can not claim to have taken about whether those data. GÇod Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >> Edit Part III - Outlook and territory The territory grappling with the regime legitimacy digital Grip on the digital identity States in turn will have to go through this kind of letting go General. The laws that have long shaped by bargaining with the industries of space, time and code will directly take into account a player long forgotten: the individual. Unless it is the reverse, ie that each individual is required to become a crucial atom (of) the law. Once it has regained control of its identity and its network, the individual, the man split - citizens - voters - user - customer, etc.. will be none of that. The public identity becomes complex and inaccessible to the image of the real identity. Any survey will become futile. Any quantification impossible without the knowledge of quantified. Any attempt to view overlooking tell more about the intentions of the observer on the thing observed. In view of this reversal of perspective, the major issue raised at all lies in its practical conditions. Is this the price of a new beheading of the "vanishing point" and the violent suppression of the privileged industries of space, time and code short, a great night, probably followed a long night? Or a more desirable by reinventing the legitimacy reasoned, substantive, procedural, and impartiality of all actors? The latter option would mean that virtually physical centers and reticular, say to simplify, territorial governments and major players in the network, must accept with humility and in a spirit of complete grip, co-build with organizations of the left process of representation and individuation acentric. In the complex world induced by these changes, the respective roles and positions will be greatly modified. Legitimacy by PerspectivesEtTerritoire impartiality: a revival? >>
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