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THREE SYSTEMS OF LEGITIMACY



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Part II THREE SYSTEMS OF LEGITIMACY * * * Olivier Auber * * October 2007 * CONTENTS Part I - Three Prospects Part II - THREE SCHEMES OF LEGITIMACY Abstract * Ideal City * Universal mechanism * A model acting II-1. The regime legitimacy space * Geometry and political * Old Regime * Republican Legitimacy II-2. The regime legitimacy Time * Condition cognitive * Common Goods * Coping with the model * Economy of attention * Cognitive Capitalism or Communism? * Networks social or business centers? II-3. The regime legitimacy digital * Subject ontological * Economy link * A law code * Biopower or Anoptisme * Prime at the opening More ... Part III - Outlook and territory Copyright © 2007 Olivier Auber Copyleft Edit SUMMARY PART II - THREE SCHEMES OF LEGITIMACY SUMMARY The three types of perspective in turn lead to three regimes of legitimacy and three types of economy: The regime legitimacy space corresponds to a production economy. 1 The regime legitimacy time is an economy of attention. 2 The regime legitimacy digital economy represents a link. 3 Back to summary TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit THREE SYSTEMS OF LEGITIMACY Part II - Three regimes legitimacy Ideal city Shortly after the invention of perspective by Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti and Piero della Franscesca have pushed its geometric principles in their positions. They deduced the model of the "ideal city" built using geometric rules say "legitimate". ideal city The ideal city (1475), Piero della Francesca. Source: Wikipedia. This sort of formal cut set of representation expressed in the ideal city is a reference model based on our modes of perception which is still in us unconsciously. Without a word, this model gives everyone clear rules to be in space and time. Without great theory, it provides all an instrument to measure at a glance the difference between the ideal and the reality of use. It also makes it possible to appreciate the game of distortion that we do suffer, both aesthetic representations, as their social and political connections. In this, the spatial perspective and physical mapping have been a powerful educational tool that contributed to reshaping the individual and collective identities collective issues of religious codes and political hierarchies of the Middle Ages. Since the Renaissance, they are accepted as the standard of representation and the implicit part of the action of men enrolled in their territory as their local sovereign. The prospect therefore, both induced, standards and instruments, a certain structure of political power. In other words, the geometric conditions that must be met before the prospect is seen as legitimate, have established a certain legitimacy of power and territorial representation that might be called the "regime legitimacy space." TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy Universal mechanisms It should be noted that the psychological and social mechanisms underlying prospects space, time and digital have probably always existed and perhaps even recurring traits of human phenomenon. Long before the invention of perspective space, time and space seemed to have related parties. Long before the invention of the telegraph, information from the occupants of a territory converged to sacred places, palaces and government offices that deal and redistribute them to some extent. And men did not wait for the invention of acentric networks and their codes of leaks to assemble in groups under the guise of social codes, such as language, religion, sex, age, level education, policy options, the type of production or consumption, and so on. Similarly, some codes biological predisposition to diseases or certain chemicals play similar roles in human joints. These mechanisms have led to some powers and Normed their respective regimes legitimacy long before the arrival of three perspectives that we describe. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy A model acting The spatial perspective of the Renaissance has objectified a significant relationship time to space, support for the table is already there for distribution. The Internet gives to turn a completely new to the exercise of ancestral mechanisms relating to information and code. For the first time, they can be quantified, measured, and viewed. And they never fails to be instrumentalized. As did the spatial perspective for the time and space, time and digital prospects are likely to provide all simple rules to be in the process related to information and code to power in assess configurations and regain some autonomy from them. This requires modeling ideal cities that build these processes implicitly and act in our unconscious on how we perceive our world and how we act on it. The new ideal cities take as a model of the spatial perspective, but the regimes of legitimacy arising are very different. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit The regime legitimacy space Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy space Geometry and political A table can be considered as meeting the canons of spatial perspective in that it gives the impression to his viewers that they can conveniently take the view of the painter. In other words, the observer must be able to check a glance that the size of characters and objects according to their distance from the point of view, and a vanishing point counterpart of the eye the author organizes elusive in a consistent manner. In terms of mapping is compliance geometric map to the territory which must be verified by field experience. The condition for the card to become Projections support and collective action is therefore order sensorimotor. To make the translation in terms of political legitimacy, we must replace the "painter" by the "Prince". Note that the latter must give the impression to his subjects that each of them, replacing him ideally, make the findings, prioritize the issues in the same manner, and take the decisions. Everyone must also be able to verify that it is treated consistently with his views and that no one escapes this treatment, including Prince himself. These conditions almost geometric legitimacy can be expressed in terms more political using the typology proposed by Pierre Rosanvallon. According to him, there are three types of legitimacy: * Legitimacy by impartiality, issue of equal treatment of subjects, * Substantial legitimacy, inherited from a higher authority, * Procedural legitimacy that has linked the accession process or hold on power. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy space Old Regime The historical period from the Renaissance to the French Revolution saw these three types of legitimacy take many forms that have combined them in many ways. Under the former regime, was substantial legitimacy provided by divine right, a "code" So who wanted the words and the Letter of God, and the king also conferred legitimacy procedural (succession by male primogeniture). The same code by ensuring its legitimacy as monarch impartiality, in charge of justice, was deemed to bend himself to God's law, like any human being. In an economy of production that drew most of its land resource, thus space, the king's impartiality resulted in the submission of all to tax more or less proportional to the production, and thus the space, in exchange for protection services of his army, manufacturing space par excellence against attacks inside and outside the territory. But this pattern included subtle distortion of games compared to the canons of the ideal city. The clergy and nobility, that can be seen as precursors of industries of time "and" industry code ", treaties were just following codes and privileged time, the court was the place of election . For centuries, however, the identities remained willingly or forcibly confused territory. The conflicts were settled border. The mapping was only military. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy space Republican legitimacy FranceDecoupage Chassis figurative territory of France shared equally among the divisions according to the report of the Constitution Committee of the National Assembly on Tuesday, 25 September 1789 on the bases of proportional representation. SourceImage: BNF. In what might be interpreted as a response to unfair distortions of spatial perspective made by royalty, the emerging middle class suddenly decapitated his vanishing point. Divine law, she substituted the "social contract" which founded the substantial legitimacy of the Republic, a "code" in itself, later translated in the form of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Constitution, Civil Code, etc.. The Republic has also innovated in terms of procedural legitimacy by inventing universal suffrage. Therefore, this system of governance born with the invention of the telegraph and requiring rapid centralization of information, put one foot in the regime legitimacy following: the time perspective. The legitimacy of impartiality, it has played in the principle of separation of powers. The executive holds its substantial legitimacy of the legislature based itself on the procedural legitimacy of universal suffrage. From the outset, the executive who holds the legitimacy impartiality to administer the territory - and thus mapping - depends indirectly from a kind of legitimacy of time. The relentless pursuit of universal suffrage into the unknown for the time perspective, fortunately refreinée east by the electoral code which establishes a "codal time", namely a pace that matches consultation with the exercise of power. In this, the Republic has a foot from the outset in the digital regime legitimacy. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit The regime legitimacy Time Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy Time Condition cognitive The ideal city from the perspective time can be imagined on the same model as the spatial perspective. A centralized system of information processing may be seen as legitimate in that it gives the impression to each of the actors that could ideally the administration itself, or possibly modify the rules of operation. The user should be able to verify by direct action on the device that its action is taken into account and treated immediately following explicit rules, as is the case of shares of all other users, including those of the system administrator. In the ideal city for the time perspective, validation of the effectiveness of vanishing point to manage its territory of signs is very simple: everyone sees the result of his personal action within the group and concluded - or not -- that it works. " It is a cognitive validation. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy Time Common property In the spatial perspective, the observer is not confused with the thing represented. In the time perspective on the contrary, the data emerging from the interaction are the result of the actors themselves. They must therefore be a kind of common good that nothing and no one can take. Everyone is also able to verify that these goods are really common, for example by trying to obtain a copy. Translated into political terms, the procedural legitimacy of power rests on its ability to handle the actions of everyone in the same moment, including queries about its accession process or for retention. The legitimacy of impartiality based on the universality and legibility processing rules that the power implements. And that being the guarantor of the common property from the interaction of all via the device that accesses the legitimacy substantially. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy Time Dealing with the model In practice, things are obviously not so simple: The immediacy is a problem for institutions based on the regime whose legitimacy space feedback loops and validation are slow and highly ritualized (universal suffrage subject to codal time). The commons are a problem in certain industries, businesses communication, including the capitalist model rather to organize the scarcity and to obtain monopoly positions. In both areas, organizations have established modes of operation which make up as much as possible their own reality with the canons of time perspective is that we can call the "economy of attention" . TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy Time Economy of Attention In the commercial sphere, giving a capacity to aggregate and distribute information, is simply the "attention" paid by users to the device, ie the time they spend and gestures they produce interact with him (Herbert Simon, 1971). Industries this time transforming raw materials into income, for example, through advertising. The legitimacy of centers that economy is essentially procedural type: the more yad'attention, the greater the resources (advertising among others), there are more ways to absorb and redistribute data and therefore to mobilize attention, so on ... The centers of the economy of attention also develop a form of legitimacy, impartiality often based on free services - which in fact treats everyone on an equal - and on ergonomics and design cognitive providing a degree readability of the process. Legitimacy derives substantial often a kind of founding myth associated with innovation, embodied by patents, copyrights and software, short codes gain more legitimacy they are finally delivered to all OpenSource . Ultimately, legitimacy comes mainly from substantial validation of these innovations by the "market"; worldly alternative to the divine order. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy Time Cognitive capitalism or communism? It recognizes Google, the most popular site in the world, as the very model of the economy of attention and behind him, a myriad of other sites or media playing on other variants of legitimacy. The model as opposed, one might say, although it is the same economy, is probably Wikipedia, the encyclopedia contributory 6th most visited site in the world, because it replaces the direct advertising donations its users (in money, time or knowledge). In the case of Google, users have no conscience to interact via a leak and to feed their sole attention. Each of them deemed to be sensitive to advertising, unwittingly participating in the general cycle of "cognitive capitalism" by merely consume. In any case, users can obtain a copy of the data that Google carefully capitalize somewhere. In the case of Wikipedia, on the contrary, users consciously feed the center of their contributions, and may participate in one degree or another in its governance. In addition, all of the encyclopedia, as well as software that allows it to operate are available to all, immediately and in full. In this, Wikipedia offers an alternative legitimacy substantially closer to the canons of temporal legitimacy, not based on the market, but really the common property. Some see the birth of a "cognitive communism." Goopedia Google: 561 million unique visitors in August 2007, +20% / August 2006. Wikipedia: 210 million unique visitors in August 2007, 52% / August 2006. Source: ComScore Metrix Word 2007 TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy Time Centers social networks or business? The new Web platform, said "2.0" which according to a study already attracted the attention of 60% of French Internet users, offer further variants of legitimacy on the register time, but they go one step further. Their material is just the attention of users, but mapping their "social networks", which allows them, among other things, to better target advertising. In this Web 2.0, though still based on a version of the Internet focus, put one foot in another legitimacy, that the prospect of digital-based "code" under the sign of recognition. Fgraph Viewing a social network on Facebook Source: TouchGraph TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit The regime legitimacy digital Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy digital Ontological condition To try to imagine the regime legitimacy of the digital perspective, you have to push the logic of acentric networks in their entrenchments to build the ideal city that looks like. As for the networks focused, a acentric can be seen as legitimate in that it gives the impression to each of the actors that ideally could administer itself, or possibly modify the rules of operation. The user should be able to verify by direct action on the device that its action is taken into account and treated immediately following explicit rules, as is the case of shares of all other users, including those of the authors of codes and interfaces that allow it to function. As in the case of time perspective, everyone should be able to directly observe the result of his personal action within the group (cognitive validation). But it takes more than the code would "link", meaning it is recognized as a sign of belonging by the group that uses it. To do this, a code to let each his own free will whether or not joined him, then he withdraws or not. On the other hand, as a public place does not impose the terms of conversations taking place there, it should not assume, either the nature or the outcome of interactions that must remain the group's own. Ultimately, this recognition of the link through another one of "authentic" trade. It is about recognizing the other and uncover anything not be him. Ontological experience in sum, in which it is expected that "it happens" (or not) to see (or not) that something sublime (or not) and not premeditated (or not) emerges (or not) moment after moment in which everyone recognizes his presence (or not). In scientific terms, this is called a Turing test, in reverse, and the collective level. Finally, even more than in the case of spatial perspective, the result of exchanges via a network acentric must be the common good of the protagonists. Once satisfied these conditions, the collective interaction may arise which allows the repository to the interaction. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy digital Economics link The translation of the digital perspective in terms of political legitimacy is very difficult to imagine. However, we can make the assumption that the economy based on previous attention not cede to the "economy of link" between individuals, between groups. The loop market, if you can still call it, could be described as the link would need an interface, the interface would need to create programs that link, and so on. The production and consumption of material goods would be an indirect consequence of the operation of the loop. In the spatial and temporal perspectives, the power was concentrated at the points of leakage. In the digital context, although the code leak was an intangible arbitrary, and elusive, the power will also focus on him. But then where would it be? And just in the opening frame on the prospect: the invisible architecture interfaces and programs that contain codes enabling switch. The primacy given by the previous perspective centers aggregators therefore disappears in favor of other players had been called the "industry code" or "communities of the code" depending on how they are structured. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> RelationshipEconomy Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy digital A law code In the current economy of attention is the "market" that ultimately established the legitimacy of substantial power. The market speaks so unpredictable indices calculated centrally: Dow Jones, Nasdaq and others CAC40. Already, "it happens", ie the radical unpredictability, is at the heart of the leak of the temporal world economy. smartmoney.jpg Map of the market. Source: smartmoney.com In the scheme of relationship gradually outgrow that of the attention, the radical unpredictability is expressed in more specific issues, but at the heart of each code leak. The semantic maps constructed as acentrée at each interface would indexes on which everyone could act. In other words, the "happen" that would validate - or not - the legitimacy of substantially all forms of interfaces, links and exchanges in the register of the digital perspective. This loop validation should emerge an ecology intrinsic to the code which may be reflected by a particular law: a code of the code (Rule of Law)? Therefore, the term "market" inherited the time of the production economy where the exchange of material goods were prominent, is unfit to designate the foundation of legitimacy substantial induced by the prospect digital. The term "poiesi" would be more appropriate, a word which Plato proposes a definition: "the cause, whatever it considered, passed it not be to be." AP.jpg Aggregator poïétique cards distributed conversations where each color represents the actions of one person. Source: Anoptique TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> Edit Edit Part II - Three regimes legitimacy The regime legitimacy digital Premium at the opening To some extent the industry of mobile phones and GPS has already advanced to the second option. It applies as well as can the conditions of legitimacy digital playing the game of standardization of communication protocols and offering interoperable terminals n'enferment not (or not too) users in such operator or provider. Microsoft walks along willy-nilly into a certain openness of its software under pressure from manufacturers who prefer to use a code open. If so, this is not for trade issues, ethical or legal, but for all these reasons both determined by a nascent digital perspective. The future reality interfaces, portable terminals and other objects communicating more and more integrated body will probably never cut between the totalitarianism of secrecy (biopower) and the opening of codes and programs (Anoptisme). These objects are likely to have an intermediate status, uncertain and ambivalent. However, a premium decisive procedural legitimacy would be given to those who can combine interoperability and concerns of common property. They could maintain their activity under the watchful extremely demanding user experts, stakeholders from conception and design. Their legitimacy would be impartial in the universality of access codes, and the rules of access to the digital identity that they contain. Apple Form Factor Evolution. Source: Apple. easyneuf EasyNeuf, Neuf Cegetel, computer opensource simplified. TroisRegimesDeLegitimite universal mechanisms>> More ... Part III - Outlook and territory
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