"L'acte de penser et l'objet de la pensée
se confondent" Parménide
Full Screen | Play
Le contenu de ce wiki est Copyleft
IPv.6, new perspectives for "social networks"?
TranslatedPages | PagesEngl
IPv.6, new perspectives for "social networks"? OlivierAuber intervention under the "forum of the new industrial world" held at the Center Georges Pompidou on October 4 2008, the Institute for Research and Innovation (IRI) and Cap Digital. summary: * Critics of the concept of "social networking". * Three "perspectives" at work in the organogenesis networks. * Intrication of the financial system and the system of addressing and routing * Expected radical transformations in the era of addressing semantics and IP Multicast. * Still not found "place" for the soul, but perhaps a proposal for R & D to IRI? ;-) PDF (2 MB) http://perspective-numerique.net/PDF/IRI-OlivierAuber-c.pdf Imported from the address http://perspective-numerique.net/PDF/IRI-OlivierAuber-c.pdf Before discussing issues of IP v.6, the Internet of the future (? :-), Let me make a short tour in the seventeenth century for some considerations on the "passions of the soul." You probably remember that René Descartes thought at that time have found the "seat of the soul" in the pineal gland - as the only organ of the brain not to be "combined", ie not is not like a pair of symmetrical lobes. We now know that the pineal gland, better known as the pituitary, is an important endocrine gland, but there are others. However the particular exchange inflow with the central nervous system through the hypothalamus and synchronize many body functions. In any case, it was shown around 1950, that his appearance "non-conjugated" is an illusion. The pineal gland is composed of two lobes, so intertwined that they can not be distinguished. As for the seat of the soul ... Three centuries later we still have not found a "center" in determining the interlacing of ourselves. We have incorporated that works worth that we are social animals n'existons only in respect of our peers and our environment. We are looking today reflects that we could characterize in the mirror of our social constructions. And we are facing another interlacing, one of the Internet. The Internet is not something natural. We are building on our own representations of the "what" or "should be" a network, namely a brain (that said in the first approximation) For now, the Internet is a collection of standards, codes, machines, cables, waves and flows. It is a hierarchical, basically very Cartesian. Contrary to what "web" accroire leaves, the Internet is "centralized" in several ways. Somewhere in its hidden recesses is a single server, object of all care and every desire is the root server address of the network on which all other DNS synchronize regularly. This server is a kind of assistant configuration file (the file of IANA), which contains the codes own languages, countries and areas of the Internet. A new state, such as South Ossetia (random!) Really exist in the network only when he was appointed in this file. Similarly, a language only if it included an explicit. Both systems would form a connected. In my eyes the new pineal gland of the Internet! Here is the map Europa Polyglotta published in 1730 by Gottfried Hensel. We have here a flat world, where languages have distinguished themselves through the ages according to the vagaries of geography. There is no point if it is overlooking the geographer. Now the map of entities linguistic and political views from our new pineal gland! Moving quickly to scan the anatomy of the gland in question: I do not will detail the items found in the concretion of acronyms: ICANN, IANA, DOC, NTIA, RIR, ccTLD gTLDs, NGO, WSIS, RIPE, FAI, etc.. What is obvious is that body which might seem far from monolithic, is in fact "conjugate", ie that he is also composed of two lobes intertwined. There is a "technical lobe" effectively ensuring network integrity, and a second lobe rather "commercial, political and financial." This lobe is the second since the beginning of the Internet toy of the Department of Trade and Defense of the United States (that is, inter alia, that the NSA branch's Big Ears). The first lobe who grew up in various universities, is now controlled directly or indirectly by private companies, not least: Google (for the normative) and Verisign (for the network and security). In fact this artificial pituitary gland regulates the behavior of all organs of the network. It synchronizes the operation either by direct influx, either by distilling standards by which other bodies must act and develop. That is how in just a few years has been a world monopoly of power without parallel in history .... It seems to me, as Bernard Stiegler, the network is the seat of a process of "nature" of the art and it takes place a kind of "organogenesis". (of formation processes of organs). In my view, we are at the stage of Descartes' of the organogenesis, in the sense that we have to repeat his mistake. Descartes erred interpretative without much consequence. We have, we made a mistake "in action" in imagining that this central body could reflect the world in all its diversity, it could truly the norm. These errors have in my opinion the same source, that is our "reductionism" chronic. A real bad-enactment (of "bad words") which results throughout the current language. For example when one uses the term "social networking" about Facebook, etc.. It is a big mistake! By itself, Facebook is simply a "website" and not a network. "His business is to make certain types of cards (social graph) from the real" social networks "that are knit social fabric of reality. Two of these cards: Nexus Ivan Kozik and the Big Picture that we developed in our laboratory Anoptique " It goes without saying that the "social networking" real change by the mere fact of being mapped by the famous "social sites". But talk to them about "social networking" is simply confused the "map" and the "territory". It is a reductionism that is complaisent to propagate the promoters of these social sites as they take advantage. It is natural! The capacity increase social users seem to have this décervelage prices. But I hope. People are not fools. They learn! We all learn! The challenge of social engineering as it is designed to IRI (it seems) is to imagine forms of personal and collective individuation they evade reducing these patterns. Basically, it creates social engineering is not to imagine all the tricks to extract the flesh of the head of the next. An emerging social engineering industry (and those who activate) of the unpleasant position of fireman and arsonist of social implosion that we live now In my view it through a research, practical and theoretical, to illuminate the mechanisms governing the organogenesis of the Internet. I propose to review three mechanisms which in my eyes president this process of organogenesis. These three "prospects" I recall first the first (not new). It is the spatial perspective of the Renaissance. From the fifteenth century, the spatial perspective made us move from a hierarchical world of symbolic and religious groups to a world geometrization. The polyptych of the Mystic Lamb illustrates this passage of a symbolic hierarchy in the upper part, a geometrical construction in the lower part based on a vanishing point located at infinity, synonymous with the unknowable. The spatial perspective continues in the digital world we inhabit (eg Second Life), but is unable to translate my opinion the substantial nature of the network. I think it masks more than it reveals. It has a role to obfuscation (mask simplistic or distorted vision) of the real organogenesis networks whose engines are the following two perspectives, they fall within the invisible. The second perspective (and the first that is truly of networks) is "time". It is very easy to understand because it is not brand new either. Its beginnings date of the invention of the telegraph. Let's look at some grid (extremely simplified) as yet: It's wonderful, each node characterized by an IP address is able to interact with any other, by mail or otherwise. Each node can in principle also aggregate all the others. In practice only some nodes do this work. The "social sites" for example. Now look at the network operate synchronously. As the Internet works today, we can not organize a "real-time interaction between a large number of users (such as a videoconference where everyone speaks the same time) without moving from a third machine ensuring switching between all. The crux of aggregation and switching for me is the "vanishing point" of a kind of perspective that I call "time". Why time? And because of this moment after moment emerges value resulting from the interaction, which is retroactive to those involved (this may be a stock market index, sound, moving image, a message list of "friends" etc. .). The time vanishing point "is the point of emergence of a time-the group that used to be updated. Although its position be known in space, this is the place of "incognitae" as the emerging value is strictly unpredictable. That is what Jean-François Lyotard a place called the "happen". The machine that continuously calculates the value of the Dow Jones is a place where "it happens" (the unpredictable and not as good). The form that the biologist Francisco Varela calls a "system autopoïétique", ie a system that tends to reconstitute the conditions of its own existence. A living cell which permanently supports the integrity of its membrane is a typical example of a system autopoïétique. In the case of the network, a website or more generally a node, tends to continuously reinforce its own legitimacy, in terms of service, use, etc.. towards those who use it to switch. The legitimacy of a site is measured in the ability of individuation that can inspire in those who use it, in other words, in the rules it uses to limit their "alienation". I use the word 'transfer', not the Marxian sense, but in the sense cybernetics as defined Von Foerster, namely simply: "There is alienation where the party can not find him in everything" This is the first condition for a cell autopoïétique network comes to stay alive. But it also takes the phenomena of "linkage" between cells. For example, when two "social sites" make exactly the same "service", they immediately enter into competition, especially as the environment in which they bathe either itself from space and borders (the spatial perspective is valid). The only border that still works is the language, but it tends to disappear .. The coupling between cells, which often takes the pace of competition, can result in various ways: death of one of the cells, fusion, aggregation of the first two by a third. There are also forms of diversion or integration as in the case of financial products ... These processes lead to the formation of real bodies of the network (by the body Google and his entourage). You see, the organogenesis of the current Internet occurs following a selection process that can be extremely fierce. The highest, or say one who has the chance to make the most energy of the community, usually wins. Not for nothing if all the start-up of the Internet trying to bud in the bath financial Silicon Valley ... As we know, this process leads to form the bodies of gigantic size, (like Google, Facebook, etc..) Acting as points of time generating fuite of subjective time on a global scale. These bodies are fragile, however, such as international finance .. It would, for example, that we realized that users do not click as much as Google hopes on its sponsored links - in other words they are not there "attention" - for every business model parte to water. We are yet in an "attention economy" where time is the first resource. Some speak of "brain time available"). I think that in this economy there, we lost! I say "we" European entrepreneurs, and "we" simple users who provide the raw material of the system: namely our time. I published an article in the spring entitled "GAME OVER, change the Internet! "In the" digital foundation 'designed to attract the attention of Mr Besson on the need to radically change the model under penalty of industrial rout. I do not know if I have been heard. So where is the exit? The change could come from a new perspective that I called "Digital Perspective" already foreshadowed in the peer-to-Peer and which could emerge with the deployment of IP v.6. I say 'could' because IP v.6 is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for this perspective digital emerge. There is an unexplored continent in the world huge billions of IP addresses is the "blue continent", he addresses so-called "Multicast". On this map are represented and some 4 billion IP addresses v.4. Current. IP v.6 (which should be operational before 2011) should be represented on a map immensely denser because these addresses will have billions of billions of billions. As we will see, this is both their numbers that will make the difference in their quality. So what is this "blue continent" that has hardly been explored in the old version of the Internet and could be in the news? The major difference between IP addresses that we know and Multicast addresses, is that they are "IP Group" and not the addresses of machines. These addresses are not tied to a particular network node. Accordingly, it is possible to create systems of aggregation of content between 2, 10, 1000, or tens of millions of individuals, without going through a node or another network as it was the case in the model of "time horizon" that I described earlier. In this new type of network at any moment, figure that draws connections between nodes being part of a group is a star, each of which can be seen as the center. The "vanishing point" of the "time horizon" disappears therefore to a simple "code" (the IP number of group) who acts as a "vanishing point" or rather "code leak" of a new perspective to describe the behavior of the "Digital Perspective". This type of network operations unknown on the web today, if not through some beginnings of the Semantic Web, is experienced in almost 20 years in the laboratory. I could use an experimental network of this type to pursue some experiments, including the "Poïétique generator" which is experience Graph collective interaction centered. The emergence of this digital network could alter the processes of organogenesis network that I described earlier. Especially because the network becomes symmetrical to the same user. The hint of Monsieur-le-everything world would somehow equivalent to that of TF1 or CNN, ie that Mr potentially all-the-world could achieve the same audience ... At the time, IP Multicast technology v.6 is operational, but ISPs do implement that in an asymmetrical version. (The TV over ADSL works this way. You can receive but not make ...) The problem is the mechanisms for allocating IP addresses group v.6 remain largely unknown. Nobody knows how to govern this. We do not even know if we should govern, or whether this is simply self-organize. If one refers to the work of some researchers gathered around the site eyecononics.com, there would be a kind of isomorphism between the mechanisms for allocating address and routing of the Internet and those who preside at the creation of the currency and exchange of values. One change would therefore change the other. We now leave "the attention economy" now to discover what could be a "relationship economy". Obviously, the powers that hold the bodies dominant network and the economy did not benefit from this change. The United States did not move. China is advanced in the transition to IPv6, but only to dispose of addresses that it lacked and boost its economy to strengthen his political control. In my opinion, perhaps in the European states, and especially in France may appear that the need for this (r) evolution ... The testing mechanisms for addressing semantic Ipv.6 group is a research topic that I propose to IRI ... In conclusion, I think we are just learning these new perspectives networks unconsciously, like the Renaissance learned the spatial perspective. Charge us not to push yet into the error of Descartes and not pretend that the Social reduce the "social networking", whether those centers, the "time horizon" or a focus of the "Digital Perspective". I am convinced that "seat of the soul, if there is quite resistant to any form of instrumentalization. He will always buried and hidden in the rhizome of ourselves and our relationships ... References (ditto article gameover)  ICANN, IANA, IETF, W3C, ISOC, IGF, WSIS, UNESCO, WSIS, UN, ITU, etc.. See Map of the Internet Governance established by AFNIC http://www.afnic.fr/data/divers/public/afnic-dossier-gouvernance-internet-06-2008.pdf  Medusa: the hierarchical structure of the Internet. This display of the Internet gives an idea of centralizing the Internet, but underestimate because it considers only the flow and not address the records that form a single entity. http://www.adminet.ca/Cawailleurs/archives/427/medusa-la-structure-hierarchique-de-linternet (3] RFC 2826: IAB Technical Comment on the Unique DNS Root Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2826 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) http://www.iana.org/  We saw recently how NetworkSolutions, for good or bad reasons, has come to exercise direct censorship on the film anti-Islamist Geert Wilders: http://www.fitnathemovie.com/ penalty and then obviously lost that it is available everywhere.  This design is the "First cybernetics" built from 1942 by Arturo Rosenblueth, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener, and many others, focusing on interactions between government systems "(or control systems ) And "systems governed" (or operational systems), governed by processes of feedback or feed-back ..  France Nerim Free, and OVH recently to offer their subscribers to switch to IPv6, but it is unclear at this point is that the possibility of Multicast symmetrical mentioned in this article is actually if possible and Multicast packets are actually routed beyond the backbone of these operators. For those who know: in the case of Free, is the transition of IPv4 & 6 Remi depression that is implemented. To see what are the limits?  RFC 966 - Host groups: A multicast extension to the Internet Protocol S. E. Deering, D. R. Cheriton, Stanford University, December 1985. http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc966.html In IPv4, the possibility of using addresses group was a wart (extension) has been used by operators to optimize bandwidth on their network (backbone). This also helped to bring television on the Internet and propose receiving hundreds of channels to subscribers of ADSL. With Multicast, flows occur only one time since the sources and are routed to the recipient unless it so requests. It is therefore a protocol of great economy, so that now people in Hollywood see the future of television. It is a very narrow commercial services that can make Multicast. The Once and Future King: Multicast looks to (finally) be the future of television. " http://www.pbs.org/cringely/pulpit/2007/pulpit_20071221_003697.html  It turns out that these programs exist, at least at the prototype stage and that many have been developed in the late'90s to INRIA and the ENST Paris. http://www.infres.enst.fr/ ~ dax / guides / multicast / mdownload.html In 94, Olivier Auber had the chance to drive the development of one of the first software Multicast ( "gp" at the bottom of the list) that unicast version is this: http://perspective-numerique.net/wakka.php?wiki=GenerateurPoietique  These theoretical expected on the paradigm shift which is roughly the transition to IPv6 contained in a study published in late 2007 by the Center for Digital Territories (OTEN), in which one of us has contributed (Olivier Auber) http://anoptique.org/PDF (Part "theoretical" on page 11 to page 37). This text is also available on the wiki at: http://perspective-numerique.net  Second cybernetics developed from 1953 by Heinz von Foerster, then by Ilya Prigogine, Humberto Maturana, Francisco Varela, and so on.  The Foundation for P2P Alternatives: http://www.p2pfoundation.net  White Paper on DNSSEC NTIA: http://www.ntia.doc.gov/frnotices/2008/FR_DNSSEC_081009.pdf