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THREE PERSPECTIVES



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THREE PERSPECTIVES * * * Olivier Auber * * October 2007 * CONTENTS Part I - THREE PERSPECTIVES Abstract I.1. Spatial perspective and physical mapping * Consistency of things * Industries of space I.2. Time perspective and interactive mapping * Immediacy * Time subjective * Other Territories I.2. Perspective and digital mapping semantics * End of operators * Code Leak * Benchmark self built * Time codal More ... Parts II - Three regimes legitimacy Parts III - Perspective and territory Copyright © 2007 Olivier Auber Copyleft Edit SUMMARY Part I - THREE PERSPECTIVES Abstract Three perspectives of both competing and nourishing each other at work today: * The spatial perspective of the Renaissance who geometrization our perception of space and time. She gave birth to the physical mapping. * The time perspective born during the French Revolution and the invention of the telegraph, which has built its network of transmitters and receivers as points of leakage adjusting our subjective time. The Internet as we practice today is the result. This has given rise to interactive mapping. * The prospect emerging digital since only twenty years of self sciences and research organization in telecommunications. There is no question here of a vanishing point, but a code leak which emerge time and space codal discretized. It gives rise to the semantic mapping. Back to summary Edit Spatial perspective and physical mapping Part I - Three Prospects Some 600 years [..] with the invention of perspective, the picture landscape becomes the standard perception of what surrounds us. [...] It seems more suited to the perception of a world that new communication technologies have changed. Anne Cauquelin Spatial perspective and physical mapping Consistency of things At the Renaissance, we began to see "perspective". We have got used to evaluate the distances between places from each other by successive plans, nearest distance. We admitted that the rules of geometrical construction of perspective known as "legitimate" determined the relative size of objects according to their distance from the point of view. We have integrated in the depths of our culture than any representation should be structured in relation to a vanishing point located on the horizon. The prospect linked the time to space, in the sense that, being able to estimate distances between plans, it also estimated travel time needed to travel from one place to another. Thus, the spatial perspective, based on our visual perception, we gave the feeling of unity and coherence of things in space and time conceived as linear. TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> Edit Part I - Three Prospects Spatial perspective and physical mapping Industry Area Girls (or sister) of perspective, the physical mapping, geodesy and descriptive geometry were added to the general framework for action to optimize the living space constraints of movement of people and goods. These tools have been the main engine of the phenomenon of urbanization, acting for centuries, has resulted in our cities and towns today. Long, cities were the leak of a range of industries of space "at the root of which were agriculture, trade exchange for food, the army and taxation to defend them. meridein Measure of an arc of meridian from Dunkirk to Barcelona, Delambre and Méchain, 1792 to 1798. Source: Wikipedia TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> Edit Time perspective and interactive mapping Part I - Three Prospects Time perspective and interactive mapping # 1 Immediacy An invention came to disrupt the good scheduling: the telegraph - optical start - and then electricity. Because of him, we are faced since only a century and a half to a phenomenon in which the classical perspective no longer taken, because it involves completely: it is the immediacy of telecommunications. Once correlated, time and distance are not. To represent a population, simply creating a map of its natural territory. Since telecommunications has existed arose the question: how can we achieve a legitimate representation of a group dispersed and communicating at the speed of light? The solution was to install specific points in space, typically two-way radios in order to aggregate information from the community and redistribute them to everyone. A military command center, a radio or television perform this task to some extent. After these beginnings, the Web as we practice today seems to be the very model of a system operating according to a new perspective that accepts this type of radios as "vanishing point". FAI Topological map of the heart of a network of an ISP Source: Govindan, Reddy, Institute of Information Sciences, USA. TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> Edit Part I - Three Prospects Time perspective and interactive mapping # 2 Subjective time The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), defines in fact a collection of centers, neither of which is pre-eminent, at least in theory. To several, much instantly, a group must agree to go through one of these centers, therefore, no longer equivalent to others. It emerges a hierarchy of the centers. Small or large, each of them is the vanishing point of the construction of the representation of the group that uses the following pattern of a time perspective. Why the word "time" this time? Because in the context of an instant interaction, as is increasingly the case, it is at the transmitter and receiver that emerges as it receives information of all , Representation and the group's own time, the resolution near its internal clock. The time that this is no longer linear time correlated to the distance following the pattern of spatial perspective, it is a subjective time built at the will of the interaction of the group in the center that he chooses, or which is required to be updated. Twittervision Twittervision 3D Source: twittervision.com TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> Edit Part I - Three Prospects Time perspective and interactive mapping # 3 Other Territories The "interactive mapping", which proposes some form or another collective immediate interactivity in relation to a repository, is following the pattern of time perspective. It struck the logical and territorial centers usual because it allows groups to spread to exist, ie to represent or be represented without their knowledge, regardless of their physical location. But it must be noted that it simply by attaching the group to a new center, in this case a server, and thus physical infrastructure located here or elsewhere, in another territory. The time perspective generates a kind of moving territory, and therefore a loss of influence of ex profit centers to new ones. In cartography, this competition is seen in the battle that engaged the GoogleMaps, Live.com, ViaMichelin, GeoPortal and many others who are fighting for their sphere of influence. With the outbreak of time perspective, the entire "space industries" are being mutate into industries time. " According to the conjecture perspectivas, the relative success of others will be largely dependent on a "legitimate" - or not - from the time perspective that these industries implement, and their ability to mutate against a third perspective: Digital perspective. TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> Edit Perspective and digital mapping semantics Part I - Three Prospects Perspective and digital mapping semantic # 1 End of operators Hardly, did we used to the practice of Web traffic to its servers and interactive mapping, another invention arises, which it promises to effectively empower the network of rootedness. Its beginnings are called P2P, GridComputing or SwarmComputing already implemented in a first wave of industrial achievements and research such Seti @ home, BitTorrent, Skype, Joost, etc.. deleting already to some extent the concept of the meaning of time perspective. This first wave announces second to be able to completely remove and create new ones in any other way. For example Hadoop, Navizon or TerraNet transform each terminal (a simple mobile phone for example) into a router all others with whom they are directly connected by radio step by step according to the principle of Mesh networks. These systems operate by radio, in the absolute will to remove the telecom operators which we know how their infrastructure is historically linked to the territories and the administering powers. Mesh Swarm Mesh network and each terminal is also the router all other Source: BitOnWheels TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> Edit Part I - Three Prospects Perspective and digital mapping semantic # 2 Code leak At the heart of these innovations is the version 6 of the Internet Protocol (IPv6) and its ability to deliver an almost infinite number of addresses not only the addresses of machines as IPv4, but the addresses of groups, under which as collective more or less extensive exchange of synchronous or asynchronous manner without any means of physical center in the sense that we defined earlier. This is the principle of IP Multicast. The time perspective currently at work (which we practice as Monsieur Jourdain ...) mutera into a "digital perspective." Why "digital"? Because the vanishing point of this third perspective is no longer a physical point as in the two previous cases, but a code - a "code leak" - which in the case of Multicast, is the IP group under which it can share. In other words, the code leak was simply the only common point among all members of a group engaged in a form of collective interaction. GP Poïétique generator: Results of the first experience of collective interaction synchronous acentrée Multicast Backbone on the World, 21 November 1996 (assembling successive plans). Source: poietic-generator.net TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> Edit Part I - Three Prospects Perspective and digital mapping semantic # 3 Repository built car After that time perspective has uncorrelated time and space, giving the body time to a subjective built by the collective activity, the prospect of digital space value emerging in the same way. The mobile terminals (or not) who are also the network routers, to "see" each other and can find step by step through triangulation. Everyone is able to map all other in one view of its own. The prospect creates the way for a third type of mapping that could be called "semantic mapping". According to a principle of self geographical location, the repository can be built in auto flow within the network. If necessary, it can reproduce the physical geography, but also all sorts of other geographies semantic own trade HMI and their environment. WifiUSA Map of wireless networks USA Source: Cybergeographe The semantic mapping is therefore of decisive importance for the development of acentric. It is thanks to her that may emerge trade structures to identify them. FA Poïétique aggregator and aggregator fractal?: Semantic mapping of a collective sharing dispersed under cover of a set of tags (codes). Source: ANOPTIQUE TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> Edit Part I - Three Prospects Perspective and digital mapping semantic # 4 infoscape.jpg Datapainting / Infoscape / Route # 1 (identities). Source: Yann Le Guennec Time codal Today, prototypes of search engines and distributed virtual environments (Wuala, TerraNet, NaviZon, Solipsis, @ rbre jMaay etc.) Announced new models of their centralized (Google, SecondLife, Facebook, etc. ). The prospect digital ad therefore turn to a loss of influence centers of the time perspective now dominant in favor of new ones. The nature of these new centers is quite paradoxical. In principle, these codes, ie entities that have no connection with time and space. These codes, arbitrary nature, are necessarily assigned or determined through procedures as a result of choice, which logically take the form of programs and software. This software is written by humans, are located somewhere. And these programs can also change depending on the choices made by human in question. In short, the "code leak" has always linked the time and space. The subjective time emerging from the interaction would depend on a time acting upstream, which could be called a "codal time", ie who would be the result of changes in terms of code (eg: transition from one version to another of a program). The location of the code leak it would be distributed, or discretized, following the location of all those who, to one degree or another, changes his condition: "Industry Code" or "communities of the Code." LinuxTimeLine.jpg Linux timeline: map distributions of Linux and their updates. Source: Distro TroisPerspectives Industries Space>> End of Part I Parts II - Three regimes legitimacy Parts II - Perspective and territory
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